Font Installation Examples for Linux and UNIX.
For this example Code 39 fonts are being used as a sample installation
on Linux, but the installation instructions will be the same for any
OS running the X11 window system (i.e. any modern UNIX). If a commercial
UNIX (e.g. Solaris) is being used that includes Adobe's Display Postscript
System (DPS), it'll include a utility for installing Type 1 fonts. Otherwise,
the easiest way to add new fonts is to use the type1inst utility,
which can be found at:
If a commercial Linux distribution (e.g. Redhat) is being used, the
utility is supplied with the distribution.
There are three main things that type1inst can do:
- Generate the "fonts.scale" file which X uses to pick up Type
- Generate entries for fonts which can be inserted into Ghostscript's
"Fontmap" configuration file.
- Make font sample sheets.
To install the fonts, go through the following steps for each directory
which have fonts to be used. (Note: log in as root to make these changes.)
- Unzip the *.afm and *.pfb files into a directory (this will
be their permanent home). (X doesn't use the AFM files, but other
- cd to the directory.
- Run type1inst (see the included documentation). For font
sample sheets, include the "-samples" switch before running it.
It will create "fonts.dir" and "fonts.scale" files, and will complain
that it can't identify the type foundry (the Code39 fonts don't
contain this usual information in their headers). Edit the "fonts.dir"
and "fonts.scale" files to change all occurrences of "unknown" to
- If this is the first time this directory has been use, the X
server needs to know where it is located so that it can use the
fonts. How this is accomplished depends on the mechanism by which
the X server gets its fonts. In most cases the X server handles
fonts itself, i.e. in the X server configuration there is information
about which directories contain fonts which it can use. How this
is done varies from implementation to implementation. If XFree86
is being used (under Linux, for instance), edit the "FontPath" entry
in the "/etc/X11/XF86Config file" to add the new font directory.
For other X implementations, consult the documentation on how to
add directories to the X font path. The second (less common) way
for the X server to obtain fonts is via an X font server, i.e. a
machine running the program xfs. Note that xfs and the X server
can be running on the same machine or on different machines over
a network. Similar to the previous case of the X server which handles
its own fonts, xfs needs to know where the new fonts are. The font
path for xfs is listed in the "catalogue" section of its configuration
file and this is where the new entry needs to be added. See the
xfs(1) manual page for details.
- If fonts are being set up for use with Ghostscript (e.g. a non-Postscript
printer is being used): A file called "Fontmap" is generated by
type1inst in the current directory. Since Ghostscript has one global
Fontmap file, use a text editor to cut and paste the entries from
the local "Fontmap" into the global "Fontmap" (the location of this
may vary, i.e. /usr/lib/ghostscript/5.10/Fontmap). Since the Fontmap
entries do not contain information about which directory the fonts
are installed in, add an entry to the GS_LIB environment variable
which specifies the font directory. When Ghostscript, is next used
these fonts will then be available.
- If a font sample sheet was generated: A new directory called
"samples" will have been generated with a series of PostScript files
in it. There is one file for each font in the directory plus some
files called "allfonts-N.ps" (N is a digit) which are PostScript
files containing smaller samples of text from ALL the fonts. The
single font samples are named after the real name of the font, not
the filename in which they are stored. For example, "samples/Code39HalfInch-Regular.ps"
corresponds to the font file "c39half_.pfb". There are a couple
of very important points which must be made about the sample sheet
feature. Firstly, sending any of these files to a PostScript printer,
chances are the output was not as expected. Type1inst does
not embed the fonts themselves into the sample file for the reason
this would use up a large amount of disk space (and most probably,
the fonts won’t be used regularly anyway). If Ghostscript has been
setup to find the fonts as described previously then the files will
be able to be viewed correctly if opened in Ghostview (or some other
preview application based on Ghostscript). To print out the samples
or view them with Ghostview on a machine where the fonts are not
installed then use the t1embed script to insert the fonts
in the sample file. Simply specify the filenames of the samples
with embedded fonts as arguments to t1embed. The current
version of t1embed requires that the fonts be embedded in
the current directory (i.e. it won’t look in GS_LIB or the X font
path for files). In normal usage run t1embed from the directory
with the fonts in it.